What is Islam?


Islam means ?submission to the will of God.? Islam teaches belief  in only one God, the Day of Judgment and individual accountability for actions. Islam greatly values peace; in fact the traditional Muslim greeting is ?Salaam?  which means ?peace.?

What are the basic teachings of Islam?

The basic teachings of Islam are similar to those of Christianity and Judaism. Islam teaches the belief in one God, the Angels, the Day of Judgment, Heaven and Hell, Adam and Eve, Prophets, Prayer, and Equality.

There are five Pillars in Islam:

  1. Faith: Believe in one God and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as his last messenger
  2. Prayer: Pray towards Mecca five times each day to remember God and thank him for his grace
  3. Charity: Donate a portion of your wealth to the poor
  4. Fasting: Go without food and drink from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan to empathize with the poor and learn self-discipline
  5. Pilgrimage: Visit Mecca and perform the Hajj once in a lifetime, if you are able and have the means

These pillars are built on the Articles of Faith:

  • God: There is only one God with no associate or partner. All that happened in the past, is happening now and is going to happen in the future is by the will of God.
  • The Angels of God: Angels can only do only good and serve God
  • The Books of God:  This includes the Torah, the Psalms given to David, The Bible and gospels revealed to Jesus (peace be upon them) and recorded by his disciples, and the Quran the holy book of Islam.
  • Prophets of God: Muslims believe that there were thousands of prophets who preached God?s message. Muslims believe in all of the prophets mentioned in the Torah and the Bible including Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them). We also believe that Muhammad was the last prophet for all humanity and completed the message of God started by Adam (peace be upon him).
  • Day of Resurrection or Judgment Day: Muslims believe that all mankind will be raised back to life and judged by God. Those whose good deeds outweigh their bad deeds will be rewarded and those whose bad deeds outweigh their good deeds will be dealt with according to God?s judgment.
  • Power of doing Good or Evil: Humans are given intelligence and the knowledge of right and wrong actions. The free will and conscience of each individual is their guide.
  • Life after Death:  The eternal life in heaven where one will be rewarded for living a righteous life on Earth, or the fire of hell where one will be punished for the evil that one committed.

Who was Muhammad?

Muslims believe that Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a prophet and the last in a series of messengers of God. Muslims believe in many prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them). Muhammad was born in Mecca in the year 570 CE, during the period of history Europeans call the Middle Ages. Muhammad was the son of 'Abd Allah, a noble from the tribe of the Quraysh. Muhammad's father died before Muhammad's birth, and his mother, Aminah died shortly afterwards. Muhammad was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib.

As he grew up, Muhammad became known for his truthfulness, generosity and sincerity, earning the title of al Amin, the trustworthy one. Muhammad was frequently called upon to arbitrate disputes and counsel his fellow Meccans

Muhammad was of a contemplative nature, and had long detested the decadence of his society. It became his habit to meditate from time to time in the Cave of Hira' near the summit of Jabal al Nur, the 'Mountain of Light' near Mecca

How did Muhammad become prophet and messenger of God?

At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative retreat, Muhammad (peace be upon him) received his first revelation from God through the Archangel Gabriel. This revelation, which continued for twenty-three years, is known as the Quran.

Muhammad began to recite the words he heard from Gabriel and to preach the truth which God had revealed to him. The people of Mecca were steeped in their ways of ignorance and opposed Muhammad and his small group of followers in every way. These early Muslims suffered bitter persecution.

In the year 622 CE, God gave the Muslim community the command to emigrate. This event, the hijrah or migration, in which they left Mecca for the city of Medina, some 260 miles to the North, marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.

Madinah provided Muhammad and the Muslims the safe and nurturing haven in which the Muslim community grew. After several years, the Prophet and his followers returned to Mecca where they forgave their enemies and dedicated the Ka'bah to the worship of the One God. Before the Prophet died at the age of 63, the greater part of Arabia was Muslim, and within a century of his death, Islam had spread to Spain in the west and as far east as China

What is the Quran/Koran?

The Quran is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe that the Quran was divinely revealed and is the last testament of God. The Quran is preserved in its original Arabic form and has never been changed.



When it comes to a concept from the Qur'aan and the Sunnah, there has always been two approaches to determine its correct meaning. These steps help distinguish between the correct Islamic concept and the later innovated views.

  • The first approach is to discover the meaning from the Qur'aan and the teachings of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), as he passed on to his Companions.

  • The second approach is to discover the linguistic meaning based on assumption without first referring to the explanation given by Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). This latter approach is that of the heretical groups.

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) writes in Kitaab al-Imaan:

"One must understand that if any term is found in the Qur'aan and the Hadeeth, and its explanation is known and its meaning is made clear by the Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), then there is no need to use any linguistic meanings as evidence…

The words Salaah, Zakat, Siyaam (fasting), Hajj are found in the words of Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). The same is true for the word Khamr (intoxicants) and others. From him (Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)), one knows their meanings. If anyone wants to explain such terms in a way, other than how the Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) explained it, such an explanation will not be accepted… The terms Imaan, Islam, Nifaaq (hypocrisy) and Kufr are more important than these terms.

The Prophet (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) explained the meanings of these terms in such a way that it is not necessary to look for their linguistic origins or how they were used by the pre-Islamic Arabs and so forth. Therefore, it is a must that while trying to determine the meanings of such terms, one looks at how Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) explained them. Their explanation is clear and sufficient… the heretics have been misled on this matter.

They turn away from this method. Instead, they begin to explain the religion of Islam based on some premises that they believe to be sound, either concerning linguistic meaning or rational thought. They do not ponder or consider the explanation of Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Every premise that goes against the explanation given by Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) is certainly misguidance." [Shaikh al-Islam Taymiyyah, Kitaab al-Imaan (Beirut al-Maktab al-Islami, 1988) p. 271]

Eeman is explicitly described in the famous hadeeth of Jibreel (alaihis-salaam), when he (alaihis-salaam) asked the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam): "What is Eeman?" He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) replied: "Eeman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and to believe in the Predestination; the good and the bad." [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Ibn Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) said: 'When the delegation of Abd al-Qais came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), he commanded them to believe in Allah and asked: "Do you know what is Eeman?" They replied: 'Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) knows best.' He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) then answered: "It includes bearing witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) is the Messenger of Allah, to establish Prayer, pay Zakaat, fast in the month of Ramadaan, and give one-fifth of the war-booty." [Abu Dawood 3/ 4660 and at-Tirmidhee]

All the matters of belief relating to Allah, the Day of Judgment and other matters of the unseen originate from these six fundamentals, so "Give glad tidings to those who believe and do good deeds, for them will be Gardens through which rivers flow…" [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 25]


Eeman is a combination of Belief and Actions. The earlier scholars summed up these two components in their saying: "Eeman is Statement and Action." [See al-Laalakai v.1, p.176]

Statement here includes both; statements of the heart and statement of the tongue (Verbal Confessing) and Action include both, actions of the heart and actions of the body. These two components are broken down into three essential parts for better understanding: -

  • Belief of the Heart.

  • Confession by the Tongue

  • Actions of the Body.

(a) Belief of the Heart: Heart is the root of Eeman. If the belief of the heart is not firm and correct then no other deed or action can be perfect. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: "There is a lump of flesh in the body. When it is sound, the whole body is sound; but when it goes wrong, the whole body goes wrong (as a result). It is the heart!!" [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Belief in the heart constitutes of two parts: -

(a) Statement of the Heart, i.e. Tasdeeq (Affirmation) made up of Recognition, Knowledge and Affirmation of Allah and His Commands.

(B) Actions of the Heart i.e. Inqiyaad (Submission) made up of Acceptance and Submission to Allah and His Commands.

The first aspect of Recognition and Knowledge is ingrained in the human nature (i.e. Fitrah Natural Instinct). The second aspect of Submission requires to be implied. Therefore, the main message of all the Messengers of Allah (alaihis-salaam) and their dispute with the disbelievers was specifically the second aspect; i.e. 'Submission to the Commands of Allah.'

Allah says: "And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid Taghoot." [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 36]

It was difficult for the disbelievers to accept and submit to the Commands of Allah because they lacked the love for the Truth.

Allah says: "…he brought them the Truth, but most of them are averse (unwilling, opposed) to the Truth." [(23): 70]

And: "It is not you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)) that they deny, but it is the signs of Allah that the wrongdoers deny." [Soorah al-An'aam: 33]

But "If you ask them (the disbelievers) who created them, they will surely say: "Allah" How then are they turned away (from His worship)?" [(43): 87]

Thus, in general, the truth of Allah's Oneness (Allah's Lordship) is clear to all, but they do not accept and submit to the Commands of Allah, which Allah refers as Truth in the verse. This is one of the major aspects that distinguish Mumin (believer) from Mushrikeen (non-believers).

Thus, the belief of the heart is the most important component of Eeman. One who desires to be certain about his Eeman and safeguard himself from loosing it (Eeman) - he must Recognize the Truth, Desire the Truth and hold Love for it (meaning adhere firmly to the Commands of Allah). This should also be combined with hatred for falsehood and disbelief, because Allah mentioned love for Faith along with the hatred for disbelief and disobedience in the verse:

"But Allah has endured the Faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience hateful to you. These are the rightly guided ones." [Soorah Hujurat (49): 7]

(B) Confession by the Tongue:

The second necessary component of Eeman is the confessing of one's Eeman by the Tongue. The simple pronouncement of the words 'La ilaha illAllah' is not the intent - Certainly, the hypocrites did so (merely pronounced the Shahadah) but they were not true believers. The pronouncement of the words must accompany: -

  • The Correct Belief in the Lordship of Allah and its related aspects.

  • Rejection of all kind of Shirk.

  • Adherence to the laws of Islam.

If these principles are not the intent of the proclamation, then such a confession is not beneficial. Hence, before one makes the testimony of Faith, he must clearly understand the meaning and purport of confession.

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) writes in his book Kitaab al-Eeman:

"The Arabs do not have any such thing in their language as affirmation or denial unless it be in meaning and wording (i.e. unless one understands and verbally confesses). One will not find in Arabic speech statements such as: 'Mr. X believed in Mr. Y' or 'denied him' if Mr. X only knew it in his heart that he (Mr. Y) was true. (Such a statement would only be made if the person) spoke it. Whoever does not affirm his belief in someone with his speech, if he has the ability to do so, is not a believer according to (the language of the) Arabs. Therefore, our pious predecessors of this nation (the Sahabah) and those who follow them in goodness agree on this point.

One who believes in his heart but does no verbally state his belief is not considered as a believer neither in this life nor in the Hereafter. Allah has not declared such a person to be a believer in the Message (the Qur'aan) - simply due to the Knowledge of Eeman in his Heart. He is not considered a believer unless he confirms it by his speech.

Therefore, the outward speech is an essential aspect of Eeman, and according to the earlier and later scholars, one will not be saved unless he verbally testifies. The Muslims agree that he, who does not make the confession of faith although he has the ability to do so, is a disbeliever. He is a disbeliever both inwardly and outwardly according to the pious predecessors and Imams of this nation." [Ibn Taymiyyah, Kitaab al-Eeman, p.126]

(c) Actions of the Body:

Actions of the body are the third integral part of Eeman. True belief of the heart results in external Submission to the Commands of Allah. It is not possible that one's belief of the heart is at a high level of Eeman but is not demonstrated by his deeds.

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said: "It is inconceivable that there be a man who is a believer with confirmed belief in the heart that Allah has obligated him to Pray, give Zakaat, Fast and perform Hajj but he lives his whole life without even making one prostration to Allah or never fasting any month of Ramadaan, never paying Zakaat for the sake of Allah and never making pilgrimage to Allah's House. This is impossible!! This would only happen if the person has hypocrisy and opposition to Islam in his heart - It would never happen with a true faith!! For this reason, Allah describes those who refused to prostrate, as unbelievers…" [Muhammad Ibn Taymiyyah Majmoo vol.7, p.611]

The most important belief that should dictate our actions is that Allah All-Mighty exists, He is the Creator and Provider, and none can benefit not harm us except with His Permission. For example, if a person's Eeman in Allah is firm, he will be able to direct all his worship and obedience to Allah and feel no fear to worldly powers.

The Story of the Prophet Moosa, the Magitians and the Pharaoh

Consider the encounter of Pharaoh's court magicians with Prophet Moosa (alaihis-salaam) as described in the Qur'aan. Before meeting the Prophet, they pleaded with Pharaoh for a substantial reward if they were to defeat Moosa (alaihis-salaam) in the contest using magic:

"So the sorcerer came to Pharaoh and said: 'Of course we shall have a suitable reward if we win.'" [Soorah al-A'raaf (7): 113]

Pharaoh accepted their plea and promised them not only a reward but also position at court. When the encounter with Moosa (alaihis-salaam) began, the magicians realized quickly that while their own display was simple magic, the Prophet Moosa's display was extraordinary and much more than any human could do. So they all fell down in Sajda (prostration) saying: "We believe in the lord of the Worlds. The Lord of Moosa and Haroon." [Soorah Taa-Haa : 70]

Pharaoh was so stunned by their declaration of Faith in Allah that he shouted: "Have you believed in him, before I gave you permission?… Be sure, I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and then I will crucify you on trunks of palm trees. So shall you know which of us can give the more and lasting punishment." [Soorah Taa-Haa : 71]

But these threats did not frighten the magicians. These men who had just been begging Pharaoh for more gold coins now became so fearless because of their faith in Allah that they answered him back easily: "Never shall we prefer you over the Clear Signs that have come to us and Him who has created us. So decree whatever you wish to decree. For you can only decree concerning matters of this world. We have believed in our Lord; may He forgive us our faults and the magic to which you did compel us, for Allah is the Best and forever abiding." [Soorah Taa-Haa : 72-73]

Increase and Decrease of Eeman:

"Whenever there comes down a Soorah, some of them say: 'which of you has had his faith increased by it? Yes, those who believe their faith is increased and they do rejoice. But as for those whose hearts is diseased, it only adds wickedness to their wickedness, and they die while they are disbelievers." [Soorah at-Tawbah : 124-125]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: "Faith has over seventy branches, most excellent of which is the declaration of "La ilaha illa Allah' and the humblest of which is the removal of a bone from the road. And modesty is a branch of Eeman." [(Saheeh) Sunan Abo Dawood (3910)]

Eeman increases and decreases according to one's Belief and Actions. It has higher parts and levels. Acts of obedience to Allah increase one's Eeman and acts of disobedience decrease it. This is where those who posses Eeman fall in different ranks. Hence, with regards to the actions of the heart, some have a greater love of Allah than others, while others fear Him more, and others are superior in their sincerity to Allah. Concerning the actions of the tongue, some recite Qur'aan more than others do, others engage in more remembrance. Likewise, people also differ in actions of the limbs.

Basic Level of Imaan

The basic level of Imaan is the minimum level of 'Tasdeeq - Affirmation (or Statement)' and the minimum level of 'Inqiyaad Submission (or Action).'

(a) Tasdeeq (Affirmation) - Belief in everything that one knows from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and willingness to believe in all the new information he acquires from him (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Meaning to realize, accept and admit that he must believe in everything that is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).

(b) Inqiyaad (Submission) - Adherence to everything known from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Meaning to submit to all the commands of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and have a willingness, desire and recognition that he is obliged to submit to every command authentically known from him (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).

These are the compulsory aspects for the validity of Imaan. If these are not fulfilled then Imaan does not exist.

Where is Allaah?


Who is Allaah?
Where is Allaah?
Proof from the Qur'aan
Proof from the Hadiths
View of the Companions
View of the 4 Renowned Imaams
Dubious Arguments

Allaah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allaah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Every creature bears witness to His Oneness, Divinity, and Ruboobiyyah [Ruboobiyyah, inf. of Rubb], and to the uniqueness of His attributes and names.

His essence does not resemble the essences. He does not inhere in anything, nor does anything inhere in Him. "There is none like unto Him." He is the One, the Sole, the Indivisible. He is the Rubb [Some translate the term 'Rubb' into 'Lord', the meaning of 'Rubb' is far more comprehensive than to be restricted to a single word such as 'Lord'. Rubb, means, among other things, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Provider, and the One in whose hands is the disposal of all affairs], who accomplishes all affairs, Allaah is the Omnipotent and the Omniscient.

His knowledge comprehends in perfect manner all things, hidden or manifest. He is greater than can be encompassed by the knowledge of His creatures. He knows everything, and He is aware of all that takes place in the earth and the heavens. Allaah, the Supreme, is the Rubb of everything and has a free hand in disposal of all affairs. His mercy encompasses everything. He is far removed from injustice or tyranny. He is wise in all His actions, just in all His decrees. His justice ensures order in the universe in which nothing is out of order.

There is no one to share His dominion, nor does He take an aide or supporter from His creatures. He is nearer to man than man's own jugular vein [TNQ 50:16].

Whenever a believer is in need or distress calls on Him, He responds. Allaah has revealed His final Scripture, the Qur'aan, to that last of His Messengers, Muhammed sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam who was responsible for conveying the Message of Islam to mankind. He is the Exalted Allaah. Glory is due to Him.


Allaah, the Exalted, has described Himself in His Book, and by the tongue of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam as Sublime, Supreme, and Lofty. The Qur'aan is full of proofs relevant to the Loftiness of Allaah.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe in and confirm all of the attributes of Allaah without distorting their meaning, and that Allaah is above His seven heavens, above His 'Arsh, and separated from His creatures, and His creatures are separated from Him.

This discourse will provide the Scriptural proofs of the Loftiness of Allaah is an indivisible part of the inherent faculty of knowing Allaah with which Allaah has created mankind. Although the aqeedah of Loftiness of Allaah is part of man's innate knowledge and cannot be subjected to hypothetical of philosophical argumentation, there are some deviated sects who follow their whims and deny this intuitive and self-evident fact. For this reason, they have twisted Scriptural proofs and distorted them, and manipulated the texts to conform with their deviant argument.

All of the divine attributes are intrinsically related to the attribute of divine Loftiness. Therefore, accepting or rejecting them must be based on accepting or rejecting the Loftiness of Allaah. Whoever believes that Allaah is above His 'Arsh [The Throne of Allaah] and separated from His creatures, also believes in the rest of the attributes of Allaah, and believes as well that the heaves and the earth submit to His will, and that He is the Great Rubb of the worlds. Allaah does whatever He wills and rules according to His Own wishes. Glory be to Him.

Denial of the divine Loftiness is one of the basic doctrinal heresy promoted by the Jahmites [Jahmites are the followers of Jahm bin Safan (d. 128-745), a radical heretic. Among other things, they deny that Allaah, the Exalted, is above His Arsh, and they allege that He is everywhere] and their off-shoots of today in order to confuse the Muslims' minds. Denying this divine attribute also leads by necessity to the denial of the attribute of the istiwaa of Allaah above His Arsh. There is no doubt that the denial of the attributes of Allaah clashes with the clear Qur'aanic verses in which the unique essential attributes and beautiful names of Allaah confirmed. These attributes must be affirmed as identical with Allaah.

The essential divine attributes of Allaah constitute an integral part of His essence and are not superadded to it. They are accepted literally by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'h without questioning the 'how' of these attributes. To deny them is clear unbelief and heresy. It is for this reason this discourse has been prepared to deal with the creed of Loftiness of Allaah, or the question, 'Where is Allaah?' with the Scriptural evidences from the Qur'aan and the authentic prophetic traditions, as well as the traditions of those early Muslims, the pious predecessors.


Allaah, the Exalted, commands the believers to refer their disputes and differences to His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam saying: "And when you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and the Last Day."; [6]

Therefore, the words of Allaah, the Exalted, as well as the words of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam must be held as the ultimate and decisive judgment. No judgment or decision should take precedence over theirs whether in issues related to the divine attributes, or any other religious issue.

By their emphasis on reason in establishing religious truth, the rationalists, the modernists, and the Jahmites assert the preeminence of reason over the divine revelations. Whereas the Loftiness of Allaah which is clearly enunciated in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah, is beyond the reach of reason.

The true believers, contrary to the rationalists, believe that the 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that having created the seven heavens and the earth and what is in them, Allaah, the Exalted, has His great 'Arsh. Allaah says: "Declare your Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity." [7]

The "Supreme", linguistically, is in the superlative signifying that Allaah is higher than everything and is above all things in essence, power, and invincibility. Commenting on this verse, Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah grant him His mercy, said: All Muslims in the past and in the present, when supplicating Allaah or imploring His help, they always raise their hands with palms towards the heaven. They do not lower their hands with palms towards the earth, nor do they turn them right or left, nor towards any other direction. They raise their hands up, knowing that Allaah is above them. The Muslims also say in prayer while prostrating, "I declare my Rubb, the Supreme, to be far removed from every imperfection or impurity."[8]

If Allaah is everywhere, as the deviated sects allege, why then the above verse does not read, 'Declare your Rubb, (around you), (below you), or (everywhere)?' Allaah says: "They fear their Rubb above them." [9]

This verse refers to the angels who are above us, and above them is our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted. Lest anyone be confused, Allaah confirms in this verse that He is above the angels who are the residents of the heavens: "The Compassionate has rose over the 'Arsh."; [10]

And: "And verily, your Rubb is Allaah who created the heaven and earth in six days, and then rose over the 'Arsh."; [11]

Allaah also says: "Are you sure that He Who is Above the heaven will not cleave the earth beneath you? Or are you sure that He Who is above the heaven will not send against you a stone-charged hurricane."; [12]

The renowned exegetes and commentators are agreed that the One Who is above the heaven is none but Allaah Who has rose over His Arsh and is above it in the manner which suits His Majesty.

Those who believe that Allaah is everywhere base their argument on verses such as:"And He is Ilaah in the Heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!";

The term, 'Ilaah' is classical Arabic means, 'the worshipped'; thus the meaning of the above verse is, "It is He Who is worshipped in the heaven and worshipped on the earth". It would have been redundant were the verse to speak about the existence of Allaah in the heaven and on the earth, for the term Illah' is an adjective of Allaah, while the pronouns, 'He' in the verse is used in lieu of the name 'Allaah', therefor, when the name 'Allaah' replaces the pronoun 'He', we get the proper meaning of the verse: 'And it is Allaah Who is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'. But according to the deviated sect who consider the term, 'Ilaah' as 'Allaah', we get the redundant meaning, 'And Allaah is Allaah in the heaven and Allaah is on the earth,' a sentence which is grammatically, linguistically and logically incorrect. Qatadah, a renowned exegete, interpreted this verse as: 'He is worshipped in the heaven and on the earth'.

Imaam al-Aajurri said: 'al-Ilaah, is the worshipped. He is worshipped in the heaven as He is worshipped on the earth.'

The Omnipresence of the Divine Knowledge

And He is Allaah above the heaven and on the earth He knows your private and public affairs. And He knows what you achieve. [13]

Those who deny that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, dubiously argue that this verse supports their argument. Their argument is refuted by realizing that this verse refers to the knowledge of Allaah, according to the renowned exegetes, not His essence. They further assert that this verse signifies that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things in the heavens and on the earth. The reference to the divine knowledge is made clearly by repeating the clause, 'He knows' twice in this verse, that is to say: "Allaah, the Exalted, knows the hidden and the open, and He knows what you achieve".

Had the verse ended with the word, 'earth', one might take their dubious argument into consideration, but Allaah, the Exalted, makes it abundantly clear that it is His knowledge, not His essence that encompasses all things. Another dubious argument is presented by those who deny the fact that Allaah, the Exalted, is above His 'Arsh, by alleging that the following verse supports their argument.

"Do you not see that Allaah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth? There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth, nor of five, but He is their sixth, nor of fewer than that, nor of more, but He is with them wherever they may be. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will inform them of what they did. Surely, Allaah knows all things full well."; [14]

The above verse, they contend, signifies that Allaah is essentially everywhere. This argument is refuted by the prominent exegete, Ibn Katheer who says: "This means that Allaah is well acquainted with their utterances, and private talks and thoughts."

Al-Qurtubi commented on this verse saying: "He knows and hears their private counsel. This is evidenced by the fact that the opening and concluding clauses of this verse confirm the knowledge of Allaah."

Al-Qasimi says: "The scholars among the Prophet's companions, who transmitted the meaning of the Qur'aan to their successors, held this verse to mean that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but His knowledge is everywhere."

The linguistic analysis of this verse proves the following points:

1. The opening words of the above verse speak of Allaah's knowledge, not His location.

2. Private counsel, or secret talk, is the theme of this verse. Allaah says, 'There is no secret counsel of three, but He is their fourth.' He does not say, 'There are not three, but He is their fourth'. Thus the meaning becomes quite clear that it is the knowledge of Allaah what encompasses all His creatures.

3. Allaah confirms that He will inform them of their secret talk on the Day of Resurrection.

4.The verse ends, therefore, confirming Allaah's knowledge.

5. Allaah begins the surah of al-Mujadilah (Chapter 58), of which the verse in question is part, with the following verse: "Allaah has indeed heard the speech of the woman who pleads with you concerning her husband and complains to Allaah. And Allaah has heard your dialogue. Verily, Allaah is All-Hearing and All-Seeing." [15] Allaah, the Exalted, states that He has heard the woman who was complaining to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and has certainly heard her arguing with her husband, but He did not state in the verse that He was their third.

6. In the subsequent verse, Allaah emphasizes that He is well acquainted with the deeds of His slaves. If one were to believe that Allaah is essentially everywhere, it would follow then that He also dwells in filthy places. Only an insane person would dare to impute to Allaah such an attribute. Far removed is Allaah of what they ascribe to Him. It would also follow that Allaah is mingling with His creatures in the heavens and on the earth. Such belief has paved the way for panatheism [16], and promoted the myth of god incarnate. Allaah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It should be clear in the minds of the true believers that there is nothing to surround Allaah, the Exalted, nor is there a place to contain Him. Things and places are creatures, and Allaah is above all His creatures. All creatures need Him, while He is separated from His creatures, and stands in need of none of them. The Heaven is the Qiblah of the Du'a Muslims supplicate Allaah with their palms upheld because they believe Allaah is above the heaven. When confronted with this fact, those who deny the Loftiness of Allaah allege that Muslims supplicate in this manner only because heaven is the qiblah of du'aa or supplication.

7. The above allegation, to begin with, has no proof in the Qur'aan or the Sunnah, and it cannot be related to any of the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam nor to any of the Tabi'een, who succeeded them. There is no mention of this statement in the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. The issue of the qiblah is central to the religion of Islam, so every Muslim must be aware of it and especially the scholars of the Muslim ummah should have known it.

8. It is an established fact, that the Ka'bah is the qiblah of formal prayer as well as the du'aa or supplication. To declare the heaven or anywhere else to be the qiblah of du'aa is a gross bid'ah (innovation) and a clear breach of the Qur'aan, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the ummah, because the Muslims have one single qiblah, the Ka'bah.

9.The qiblah is the direction to which Muslims turn or face in prayer, and to face something is to look toward it. If the heavens were the qiblah, the Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam would have commanded his companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, to face the heavens in their prayer. On the contrary, the Muslims are forbidden to uphold their eyes while praying, but are to concentrate on the spot upon which their faces rest during prostration. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam warned: "Let those who uphold their eyes while praying stop doing so, lest they become blind." [17] The Qur'aanic verses allow no room for such opinions. Allaah, the Exalted, specifically commanded His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and his ummah to face the direction of the Ka'bah in their prayers, saying: "And from wherever you come forth, turn your face toward the Sacred Mosque." [18] Then Allaah addresses the Muslims: "And wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it."; [19] The Loftiness of Allaah is also proven by the following verse: "To Him ascend the good words, and He exalts the righteous deeds."; [20]

This verse contains the clear words of Allaah, in which the verb "ascend" is used to indicate that Allaah is above and separated from His creatures. The ascendance of deeds is also proven by the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam describing the excellence of the period of time that falls after zawal of zenith. He said, "This is a time when the gates of the heavens are opened, and I hope that a good deed of mine would ascend to Allaah." The verb "ascend" in the text signifies that the good deeds are raised up to reach Allaah, the Exalted. And Allaah says:"The angels and ar-Rooh [21] ascend to Allaah in a day which is fifth thousand years long." [22] The Loftiness of the Creator is made clear by the great distance that separates the angels who inhabit the heavens from their Rubb above them. And Allaah says:"He manages all affairs from the heaven unto the earth." [23]

It should be borne in mind that this verse is preceded by the words of Allaah: "He rose over the Throne."; And Allaah also says:"O, Issa (Jesus)! I shall cause you to die, and raise you up to Me."; [24] Since Allaah addressed Issa saying: "I will raise you up to Me";, what would those who believe that Allaah is everywhere answer when they are asked: "Where is Issa now?" They would say either Issa is everywhere, or he is in heaven. If they claim that Issa is everywhere, they would apostatize as a result of their equating Issa with Allaah in accordance with their claim that Allaah is everywhere. A claim which resembles the Christians' myth of god incarnate. But if they say, "Issa is in the heaven," they would admit that Allaah did raise Issa up to the heaven, and that Allaah is above the heavens. Allaah says:"Surely, your Rubb is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days; then He istawa[25] on the Throne."; [26]

This is one of the seven Qur'aanic verses in which Allaah, the Exalted, refers to His istiwa' on His 'Arsh. Ahlus-Sunnah are certain that the great 'Arsh of Allaah is above the seven heavens. They also believe that Allaah, having created the earth and apportioned its provisions, ascended above His great 'Arsh. Only those who believe otherwise hold these verses to be allegorical. Allaah, they say, "is everywhere", denying that He is above the 'Arsh. Exalted is Allaah, and far is He removed from their ascription. Quoting all or even most of the verses signifying Allaah's attribute of Loftiness would only enlarge the volume of this issue. There are about 215 verses in the Qur'aan containing the verb sent down with reference to either the Qur'aan, the previous Scriptures, or the angels.


Authentic Prophetic traditions, as well as traditions of the Prophet's companions, with whom Allaah is pleased, and works of the Four Imaama and of the rest of the pious predecessors contain many textual as well as inferential proofs of Allaah's Loftiness. Allaah, the Exalted, praises His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and confirms his veracity and truthfulness by saying: "Nor does he speak of his own desire. It is only revelation revealed (to him.)"; [27] And Allaah says:

"And whatsoever the Messenger commands you, adhere to it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it.";

1. And the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "I have been given the Qur'aan and similar to it therewith." [28]

2. The purified Sunnah is what the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam meant by saying: "and similar to it therewith". The Sunnah is the second source of the Shari'ah of Islamic laws. Many traditions deal with the attribute of Allaah's Loftiness. The following are selected authentic traditions to whose authenticity all scholars of the hadith at all times have testified.

3. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam reported his eventful journey from Makkah to Jerusalem (al-Mi'raj) [29] and from there up to the heavens as follows: Jibreel took me up to the lowest heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. He was asked, 'Who is this?' He answered, 'Jibreel.' 'Who is with you?' They inquired. 'Muhammed sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam' He answered. They inquired. 'Has he been invited?' 'Yes'. Jibreel replied. Then someone greeted saying, 'He is most welcome'. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam continued, when the gate was opened, I entered and met Adam there. Jibreel said to me, 'This is your father, greet him'. Adam greeted me back, saying: 'Welcome, pious son and pious Prophet'. Then Jibreel ascended to the second heaven and requested its guards to open its gate. The questioning that took place in the lowest heaven was repeated before the gate was opened. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam described what he saw in every heaven, until finally he was taken up to the seventh heaven where obligatory prayers were prescribed to him. This authentic mutawatir [30] hadith speaks clearly in plain words and straightforward manner which is not liable to misconstruction or farfetched interpretations. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam was taken up to his Rubb from one heaven above the other. The Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah believe that the Mi'raj was neither an illusion nor a vision, rather real and essential. Had Allaah been everywhere, why would the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam be taken all the way up to the seventh heaven? Allaah would have prescribed to him the Salaah on earth rather than in the seventh heaven.

4. Adullah bin Amr reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Be merciful to those on earth, so that the One above the heavens will be merciful to you." [31] Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The angels of death usually attend the dying person. If he is pious, they would address his soul saying, 'O good soul! Come out of the good body, and rejoice in the annunciation of mercy and provision from the Rubb Who is well pleased with you'. The angels would keep coaxing it with these words until the soul emerges from the body. Then it would be taken up to the heaven where permission to open the gates of the heaven would be sought. The guards would inquire, 'Who is this?' 'So and so', the angels would answer. The guards would say: 'O good soul! You are welcome'. The soul would be flattered by such words and finally be taken up to heaven above which is Allaah." [32] It is quite evident that Allaah, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens. Otherwise, why would the souls and the believers deeds be taken up to the heavens to reach Allaah?

5. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "The angel of death used to appear to people whose souls he would collect. When he came to the Prophet of Allaah, Musa alayhis-salaam to collect his soul, Musa punched out his eye. The angel of death ascended to his Rubb, the Glorious, and said to Him, My Rubb! You have sent me down to Musa who punched out my eye. Had he not been honored by You, I would have given him hard time..." The angel of death descended to Musa from the heaven to collect his soul. He did not come to him from east, west, north, or south, nor did he emerge from the earth, and then he ascended to His Rubb Who is above the heavens.

6. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "There are hundred levels in Jannah which Allaah has prepared for the Mujahideen who fight in His cause. Between on level and another is a distance which is equal to that between the earth and the heaven. When you ask Allaah, azza wajull, ask Him for Firdaws, because it is situated in the midst and Highest point of Jannah from where the rivers of Jannah spring, and above it is the 'Arsh of the Most Merciful." [33]

7. Mu'awiyah as-Sahmi reported: "I had some sheep which I kept between Uhud and Juwaniyyah with a slave-girl to look after them. One day, I went out to check on my sheep and discovered that a wolf had devoured one of them. Since I am just a human, (I became angry) and struck the girl. Later on, I came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and reported to him the incident. He terrified me with the gravity of my action. I said, 'Messenger of Allaah'! Shall I free her (as an expiation of my sin.) He said 'Call her over'. When I did, he asked her, 'Where is Allaah?' She said, 'Above the heavens'. Then he asked her, 'Who am I?' She said, 'The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam'. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam ordered me, 'Free her. She is a believer'." [34] The above hadith, according to Shaikh Kahlil al-Harras, is a luminous proof of the Loftiness of Allaah, the Exalted. Here is a man who wronged his female slave by striking her, and wanted to expiate his sin by giving her freedom in return. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam chose one particular question, 'Where is Allaah?' Then the slave girl gave him the correct answer, 'Above the heaven'. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam declared her to be a believer. Does not the above the hadith stand as a solid proof that Allaah is above the heaven? Doubtlessly, that slave girl, the shepherdess, knew her Rubb more than those ignorantly claim that Allaah is everywhere!

8. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night, during the last third of the night, and says: 'Anyone calls Me, I will respond to him? Is there anyone asking for anything? I will give it to him? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, I will forgive him?' " [35] The words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam: 'Our Rubb, the Blessed, the Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven', clearly indicate the essential Highness or Loftiness of Allaah, the Exalted. Were Allaah to exist everywhere, there would be no need for the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam who knew Allaah best, to say, 'Allaah descends', nor would there be a reason to distinguish one portion of the night from another. There is only one answer to this: Allaah, the Blessed, the Exalted, is above the seven heavens, and above the great 'Arsh.

9. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allaah will descend to His slaves on the Day of Resurrection." [36] It is the Day when Allaah will come down to pass His judgment.

10. In another tradition, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Allaah will gather the first and the last of His slaves for an appointed certain Day, when they will remain for forty years with their eyes uplifted towards heaven waiting for the decisive judgment. Allaah will then descend in coverings of clouds from His 'Arsh to the Kursi."


1. Zainab, the wife of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, used to claim excellence over the rest of his wives by telling them, 'It is only your parents who gave you in marriage to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, while it is Allaah Who gave me in marriage to him from above the seven heavens.' [37]

2. In another narration, she said to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, 'It is the Rahmaan, the Merciful, Who married me to you from above His 'Arsh.'

3. Ibn Abbas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said to Aa'ishah, the wife of the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam when she was on her death bed: "Of all his wives you were the most beloved to the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and he used to live only the pure. Allaah, the Exalted sent down your exoneration from above the seven heavens which was brought down by Jibreel. There is not a single masjid of the masajid of Allaah but the verses of your exoneration [38] are recited in it day and night." Aa'ishah, the wife of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam in this world and in the world to come, Mother of the Believers, whom the pervasive-minded sect tried to dishonor, but Allaah, the Exalted, exonerated her honor and condemned those who spread the lies against her.

4. In his speech subsequent to the death of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr as-Saddiq said: "He who was worshipping Muhammed sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, (let him know that) Muhammed is dead, and he who was worshipping Allaah, (let him know that) Allaah is above the heaven Ever-Living, never dies'." [39]

5. Ibn Umar passed by a shepherd and asked him, 'Do you have a sheep fit for slaughter? 'Its owner is around', the shepherd answered. 'Tell him that the wolf devoured it'. Ibn Umar said to him. Thereupon, the shepherd uplifted his head towards the heaven and said, 'Then where is Allaah?' Ibn Umar responded, 'By Allaah. It is I who should have said, 'Where is Allaah.' He later on bought off the sheep and the shepherd and freed the latter and gave him the sheep. [40]

6. Abdurrahman al-Mahdi [41] said: "There is no one more evil among the people of whims than the followers of Jahm. All their deviant beliefs revolve around one theme; 'There is no one above the heaven.' I believe, by Allaah, that they should not be married from, nor to inherit Muslims nor to be inherited by Muslims." This opinion of Ibn Mahdi is shared by many among the pious predecessors.

7. Wahab b. Jareer said: "Beware of the opinions of Jahm's followers, for they try to convince people that there is nothing above the heavens. Their statements are only from Iblees's revelation, and it is only infidelity".


Imaam Abu Hanifah [43]

Abu Muti' Al-Balkhi reported:"I asked Imaam Abu Hanifah about a person who says, 'I do not know whether my Rubb is, above the heavens or on earth?' Abu Hanifah, may Allaah grant him His mercy, said: 'A person who makes such a statement becomes an apostate because Allaah, the Exalted says, 'The Merciful has ascended above the 'Arsh, and the 'Arsh of Allaah is above His heavens'. I further asked Abu Hanifah, 'What if such a person admits, Allaah is above His 'Arsh, but exclaims, I do not know whether His 'Arsh is above the heavens or on earth'. Abu Hanifah responded: 'If he denies that the 'Arsh is above the heavens, he is an apostate." [44] If the person apostatizes by saying that he did not know where is the 'Arsh of Allaah, then by right a person who denies the Loftiness of Allaah altogether is definitely worse than an apostate.

Imaam Maalik [45]

Abdullah bin Nafi' reported: Maalik bin Anas said:'Allaah is above the heavens, but His knowledge encompasses everything. Nothing escapes His knowledge.' [46]

Imaam Ash-Shafi'ee [47]

Imaam ash-Shafi'ee said:"The creed which I hold is the same creed the Muslims before me were holding, namely, the Testimony of Faith: "There is no god worthy of being worshipped except Allaah, that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allaah, and that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above the heavens. He descends to the lowest heaven whenever He wishes." [48] Imaam ibn Khuzaimah, a Shafi'ite himself, said: "Whoever disacknowledges that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, above His seven heavens, and that He is separated from His creatures, is a Kafir, (unbeliever). Such person must be ordered to repent and disavow his belief, or else he must be beheaded and thrown on a garbage dump so that neither Ahlul-Qiblah [49] nor Ahludth-dthimmah [50] be annoyed by the foul odor of his carcass." [51] Abu Bakr Muhammad at-Tamimi, a Shafi'ite Imaam of Naisaboor, said:"I do not pray behind a person who denies the attributes of Allaah and does not recognize that Allaah is above His 'Arsh." [52]

Imaam Ahmad [53]

He was asked: "Is Allaah above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, separate from His creatures, and is His knowledge and power encompassing everything everywhere? He replied: 'Certainly, He is above His 'Arsh and nothing escapes His knowledge." [54] All of the above show that the entire Muslim ummah, in the past and present, is in unison regarding the belief in the Loftiness and Supremacy of Allaah, the Exalted.


Adherents of certain deviant sects promote a false belief that Allaah is omnipresent Who inheres in His creation. Rational arguments are deadly available to refute the blasphemy of the Jahmites and those who try to revive their belief today. To prove that Allaah is above His 'Arsh, and above the seventh heaven in a manner that suits His Majesty, the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allaah be pleased with him, refuted their belief more than one thousand years ago, when he wrote: "Where Allaah is and Where He is not - An exposition of the denial of the Jahmites that Allaah is above the 'Arsh."

We asked them "Why do you deny that Allaah is above the 'Arsh when He has said: 'The Merciful has the 'Arsh? [55] And again,' 'Who in six days created the Heavens and the earth then the 'Arsh,' [56] They replied: "He is under the seven earths as He is on the 'Arsh; He is in heaven, on earth and in every place; there is no place where He is not, nor is He is one place to the exclusion of any other." And they quoted the verse: "And He is Ilaah in the heavens and He is Ilaah on the Earth!" If you wish to prove the falsehood of the Jahmites who claim that Allaah exists everywhere, not in one particular place, ask them, 'Is it not true that Allaah was existent when there was nothing in existence?' The Jahmites' answer would be: "Certainly, there was nothing before Allaah." Then ask them, "Did Allaah create the creation within Himself or outside of Himself?" The Jahmites would be compelled to choose on of the following three answers:

1. If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation within Himself, they would then become apostate instantly by claiming that the Jinn, humans and Satans are all dwelling within Allaah.

2. If the Jahmites assert that Allaah created the creation outside Himself but dwelled in them afterwards, they would also become apostate instantly by claiming that Allaah dwells in His creatures.

3. But if the Jahmites say that Allaah created the creation outside Himself and has never dwelled in them, they would by giving this answer, join the folds of Ahl-As Sunnah, for by giving this answer they denounce their own deviant beliefs.

Allaah, the Exalted, described Himself in the Torah too that He is above His creatures. Ka'bul-Ahbaar said: "Allaah, azza wajall, [57] said in the Torah, 'I, Allaah Am above My slaves, and My 'Arsh is above My creatures, and I am upon My 'Arsh running the affairs of My slaves. Nothing is hidden from Me neither in heaven nor on the earth." [58]

Finally, it may be worthwhile to say that even the enemy of Allaah, Fir'awn (Pharoah), who flagrantly claimed to be a god of his people, knew where Allaah is more than the followers of Jahm today. Allaah says: And Fir'awn said, 'O, Haman, build for me a tower that I may reach the ways; the ways to heavens so that I may have a look at the Ilaah of Musa.' [59] Now consider the words of Fir'awn who wanted Haman to build a tower for him that he might climb all the way to the heavens to see the Rubb of Musa, for Musa already told him that Allaah to Whom he is inviting him is above the heavens, and compare this with the groundless argument of the Jahmite off-shoots of today. A Muslim wonders how could those who believe that Allaah is Omnipresent rationalize such assertion knowing that Allaah, the Omnipotent, will collect the earth in His hand and fold the heavens in His right hand, as evidenced by the following divine stern warning. And they have not venerated Allaah with the veneration that is due Him, for on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be collected in His hand and the heavens will be folded up in His right hand. [60] Were the above verse to be the only proof of Allaah's Loftiness, it would have been more than sufficient. It is certainly sufficient to those who fear Allaah and give Him the true veneration that is due to Him.


The first three Muslim generations whose righteousness the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam testified for, and whose merits surpassed the merits of all succeeding generation. They are the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and the two generations that followed them. They all believed in the apparent meaning of the Qur'aanic ayaat that deal with the divine attributes without giving them farfetched interpretations based on Greek philosophies.

The Believer must believe that there is none like unto Allaah, the Exalted, in His essence, attributes, nor His actions. He must also believe that Allaah stands in need of none of His creatures. Neither a thing nor a place encompasses Him. He is above His 'Arsh, above the seventh heaven, and above all His creature essentially and realistically not allegorically.

There is none of His creatures that touches Him. Based on this it is not permissible to say that Allaah is everywhere, or He inheres in any of His creatures, for Allaah was when there was nothing. He who asserts that Allaah is not outside the universe, not only denies the existence of Allaah, but he worships a non-existent god. We ask Allaah to keep us on the straight path of His Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and his Companions and to make us join their company on the Day when neither wealth nor offspring would avail. Walhamdu lillahi Rabbil-aalameen.

This discourse has been based mainly on two books: Ithbat Uluwil-Lah, by Usamah bin Yusuf al-Qassas, may Allaah grant him His mercy, and Ar-Rahman alal Arsh Istawa, by Dr. Awad Mansoor



6. Q 4:59

7. Q 87:1

8. Q 87:1

9. Q 16:50

10. Q 20:2

11. Q 7:54

12. Q 67:17.18

13. Q 6:3

14. Q 58:7

15. Q 58:1

16. Pantheism is the belief that Allaah and the universe constitute one being, as opposed to the fundamental belief of the Oneness of Allaah and the separateness of His creations, as stressed by Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah.

17. Imaam al-Bukhaaree, Imaam Muslim and others.

18. Q 2:150

19. Ibid.

20. Q 35:10

21. Ar-Rooh is Jibreel, peace be upon him.

22. Q 70:4

23. Q 32:5

24. Q 3:55

25. 'Istawa' p.t. is derived from the verb sawiya and its derivative form istiwaa' to mount on the Throne. The Ash'arites, the Mu'tazilites, the Jahmites, and those who uphold their belief, hold the attribute of Istiwaa' to be only symbolic, whereas Ahlus-Sunnah accept this and the other essential attributes of Allaah literally without drawing parallels.

26. Q 7:54

27. Q 53:4.527 Q 53:4.5

28. Abu Dawood.

29. Imaam al-Bukhaaree, Imaam Muslim and others.

30. This is the strongest category of the authentic ahadith.

31. Imaam al-Bukhaaree, Imaam Muslim, and others.

32. Imaam Ahmad, al-Hakim, and others.

33. Imaam al-Bukhaaree, Ahmad, and others.

34. Imaam Muslim, Abu Dawood, and others.

35. Imaam Maalik, Imaam al-Bukhaaree, Imaam Muslim, and others.

36. At-Tirmidthi and others.

37. Al-Bukhaaree.

38. The verses in question are in surat An-noor #24:11 thru 20.

39. Imaam al-Bukhaaree and others.

40. Ath-Thahabi.

41. He was a great scholar and a leading authority in the Prophetic traditions, and a contemporary of Imaam ash-Shafi'ee, (135-198H.)

42. Al-Bukhaaree, adth-Thahabi and others.

43. Abu Hanifah, one of the four Imaam was prominent jurist living from 80 to 150 AH.

44. Sharhut-Tahawiyyah, p.288

45. Maalik bin Anas, one of the four Imaams, was prominent jurist and traditionist (93-179 H).

46. Abdullah bin Ahmad, as-Sunnah, and others.

47. Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris ash-Shafi'ee one of the prominent four Imaams. Prominent jusrit (150-204 H).

48. Al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.93

49. The Muslims in general.

50. Christian or Jewish subjects of a Muslim country.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal, the great Imaam, was nicknamed the Imaam of Ahlus-Sunnah. This name was to become in Islam the watchword for uncompromising belief. Imaam Ahmad, may Allaah be pleased with him, was a hero and victim of the violent inquisition during the reign of the Caliph al-Ma'moon, who ordered his subjects, under pain of severe punishment, to adopt the belief that the words of Allaah of which the Qur'aan is composed are created, thus resembling the belief of the Christians. Imaam Ahmad, who refuted to endorse this belief was subjected to harassment, imprisonment, and torture.

54. Al-Juyoosh al-Islamiyyag, Ibn al-Qayyim, p.123.

55. Q 20:4

56. Q 25:60

57. Azza wajall, Allaah is the Powerful, the Glorious.

58. Ath-Thahabi and others.

59. Q 40:36,37

60. Q 39:67

Types of Kufr (Disbelief)

The Qur'aan uses the word Kufr to denote people who cover up or hide realities. The Qur'aan uses this word to identify those who denied Allaah's favors by not accepting His Dominion and Authority. Kufr thus is an antonym for Iman or disbelief in Allaah and a Kaafir is a non-believer. This type of Kufr is called AL-KUFR UL AKBAR or major kufr. There are many types of Al-Kufr ul Akbar:

1. Kufrul-'Inaad: Disbelief out of stubborness. This applies to someone who knows the truth and admits to knowing the truth and admits to knowing it with his tongue, but refuses to accept it and refrains from making a declaration. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Throw into Hell every stubborn disbeliever [Soorah Qaaf (50), Ayah 24]

2. Kufrul-Inkaar: Disbelief out of denial. This applies to someone who denies with both heart and tongue. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: They recognize the favors of Allaah, yet they deny them. Most of them are disbelievers. [Soorah Nahl (16), Ayah 83]

3. Kufrul-Kibr: Disbelief out of arrogance and pride. The disbelief by the devils (Iblees) is an example of this type of Kufr.

4. Kufrul-Juhood: Disbelief out of rejection.This applies to someone who aknowledges the truth in his heart, but rejects it with his tongue. This types of kufr is applicable to those who calls themselves Muslims but who reject any necessary and accepted norms of Islam such as Salaat and Zakat. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: They denied them (OUR SIGNS) even though their hearts believed in them , out of spite and arrogance. [Soorah Naml (27), Ayah 14]

5. Kufrul-Nifaaq: Disbelief out of hypocrisy.This applies to someone who pretends to be a believer but conceals his disbelief. Such a person is called a MUNAFIQ or hypocrite. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Verily the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of Hell. You will find no one to help them. [Soorah An Nisaa (4), Ayah 145]

6. Kufrul-Istihaal: Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL. This applies to someone who accepts as lawful (Halal) that which Allaah has made unlawful (Haram) like alcohol or adultery.Only Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala has the prerogative to make things Halal and Haram and those who seek to interfere with His right are like rivals to Him and therefore fall outside the boundries of faith.

7. Kufrul-Kurh: Disbelief out of detesting any of Allaah's subhanahu wa ta'ala commands. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Perdition (destruction) has been consigned to those who disbelieve and He will render their actions void. This is because they are averse to that which Allaah has revealed so He has made their actions fruitless. [Soorah Muhammed (47), Ayah 8-9]

8. Kufrul-Istihzaha: Disbelief due to mockery and derision. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Say: Was it at Allaah, His signs and His apostles that you were mocking? Make no excuses. You have disbelieved after you have believed. [Soorah Taubah (9), ayah 65-66]

9. Kufrul-I'raadh: Disbelief due to avoidance. This applies to those who turn away and avoid the truth. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of his Lord's signs but then turns away from them. Then he forgets what he has sent forward (for the Day of Judgement) [Soorah Kahf (18), Ayah 57]

10. Kufrul-Istibdaal: Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allaah's Laws. This could take the form of:

(a) Rejection of Allaah's law (Sharee'ah) without denying it

(b) Denial of Allaah's law and therefore rejecting it, or

(c) Substituting Allaah's laws with man-made laws. Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Or have they partners with Allaah who have instituted for them a religion which Allaah has not allowed. [Soorah Shuraa(42), Ayah 8] Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says: Say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely (that) is lawful and this is forbidden so as to invent a lie against Allaah. Verily, those who invent a lie against Allaah will never prosper. [Soorah Nahl (16), Ayah 116]




Arranged Marriages
Marriage by definition is a voluntary union of two people. Women and men are not forced by Islamic Law to marry someone against their will. In some cultures, arranged marriages are common such as in Japan, India, and China.

Oppression of Women
Islamic Law does not enable or condone the oppression of women. In contrast, the Holy Qur'an makes it clear that women are not to be oppressed. Islam guaranteed these and other rights to women over 1400 years ago. Women in western nations have only obtained these rights recently. With that said, there are some Muslim countries and groups that have strayed from this -- interjecting old customs into their law books. The western media also lends to this misconception. The depiction of women covering their heads, chest, arms, and figure is looked upon as oppression. Yet they fail to notice that men dress in the exact same way -- often wearing long robes and loose clothing. That's equality in modesty. All Muslims are required to dress modest.

Islam is a new religion - unrelated to other monotheistic faiths
Islam has been around long before Christianity and Judaism, it has been around since the time of Adam (saw). The Prophet Muhammad (saw) is the last of a long line of prophets sent to us by ALLAH (swt). These prophets include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, David, Solomon, John the Baptist, and Jesus -- peace be upon them all. Therefore, Islam is a religion for those that believe in the Oneness of God and the line of Prophets. It is directly related to Judaism and Christianity and there are many similarities among them.

Muhammad (saw) is the founder of Islam
As with Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and the other Prophets (peace be upon them all), Muhammad (saw) was chosen by ALLAH (swt) to deliver the Message of God. This Message is for all peoples in every nation for all time. The Angel Gabriel came to the Holy Prophet with revelations that were to be called the Qur'an. Like Jesus (saw), Muhammad (saw) emphasized that people should worship the One God, and not a man. It would follow, that Christians (named after "Christ") would assume that Muslims are named after Muhammad (saw) -- even calling Muslims "Mohammedans" for many years. This is not the case. Muslims worship ALLAH (swt) and not any Messenger.

Muhammad (saw) wrote the Qur'an
Muhammad (saw) did not write the Qur'an. It was revealed to him by the Angel Gabriel. The Qur'an states that Muhammad (saw) was not literate. This is an important revelation because if Muhammad (saw) was literate, surely there would have been protests about that claim -- but none exist. In fact, some called him a sorcerer and magician. Also, the type of phrasing and style used in the Qur'an was completely unknown to the people of Arabia.

Linguistics aside, there are other proofs in the Qur'an that its origin could only be from ALLAH (swt). Mathematical miracles exist as if to preserve the message from tampering. For example, the Holy Qur'an states that men and women are equal, then mathematically confirms it by mentioning men and women each 24 times. 24=24*. This world  (115) and the hereafter (115), Angels (88) and Satan (88), life (145) and death (145), calamity (75) and thanks (75),  spending (73) and satisfaction (73), desire (8) and fear (8), hardship (114) and patience (114) are all additional examples of this -- but many more exist. Also consider that the word 'prayer' is mentioned five times, 'month' 12 times, and 'day' 365 times. Or that land (13) and sea (32) when added together equals 45, with land (13) being 28.889% of the sum and sea (32) being 71.111% of the sum. Modern science has confirmed that land makes up 28.889% of the earth's surface, while water makes up 71.111% of its surface.

Muslims are Arab
There are more than a billion Muslims in the world today, ranging in ethnicity from Arab to Russian to Malaysian to Chinese. Race, culture, and nationality have no bearing on Islam or who is or can be a Muslim.

Nation of Islam
The Nation of Islam (NOI) is not Islamic, nor are they an accepted sub-group of Islam.


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